Utilitarianism is a theory of ethics that described of how people react to morally decision to gauge whether he made the right decision or not, based on logic. Utilitarianism mentioned that an action is called RIGHT if and only if it fulfilled two maximum: happiness and value.
In this concept, happiness is defined as the maximum of pleasure and minimum of pain. And value is defined as the maximum expected value given by the current action. The action, in this concept is the consequences.
So Utilitarianism is happiness and value.
Piracy, is a great example of how utilitarianism works. Piracy of music for example, will benefit many people that downloaded the music from the internet. But it is in short term that maximizing value and happiness at the expense of musician’s happiness. However, in long term, this action is unethical because no musician will produce music and in the end people will complaints of not having enough to make their life happy. In the short term, it is ethical, but long term it is unethical.
If human being simply follow the pain and pleasure path, how in Earth we are going to be different than animals? That is why if we simply blindly follow utilitarianism, we will become much more like animal than human beings.
Imagine that ten men raped one girl in a forest. Does that make the action ethical? According to this theory, surprisingly it is because it maximize the pleasure of ten people at the expense of one person.
That is why this theory is much more like Hedonism than anything else, and blindly followed by shallow people who doesn’t want to learn how to behave correctly among the society. It is our job to educate the young people of ethics so they can learn how to become better person and benefit the world. Legacy is a precious thing to have and yet, not enough people contribute to it to masses because of we have forgotten the art of ethics and the techniques to teach it among younger people. Hopefully by teaching ethics, they will realize and follow the path to become a better men.